Current Students Info

Writing tip: Citing resources by same author

December 17, 2013
Source: Crossroads

According to the APA style rules, if you have two or more resources by the same author from which you've quoted or paraphrased information, you can distinguish between the resources in your in-text citations and references by the year of publication: e.g., Brown (2009) versus Brown (2013). In the references, list the earliest text first (American Psychological Assocation, 2010, p. 182):

Brown, A. (2009). 

Brown, A. (2013).

If you need to distinguish between works by the same author with the same publication date, use the suffixes a, b, c, etc. after the year (American Psychological Assocation, 2010, p. 178). This format must also be used in the corresponding references. To determine which resource gets what suffix, order the resources alphabetically by the title of the article (excluding "a" or "the"). The first resource would be (2013a), the second resource would be (2013b), and so forth. You can append the lowercase letters to n.d. as well: n.d.a, n.d.b. In your in-text citations, please make sure that you're using the same lower-case letter as you did in your references. For example, (Royal Roads University, n.d.a, para. 3) and (Royal Roads University, 2002b, para. 2) would correspond to the following references:

Royal Roads University. (n.d.a). Education & technology. Retrieved from

Royal Roads University. (n.d.b). Humanitarian studies. Retrieved from


American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.